Books on education

Leman, J. (ed.) (2012). Meertaligheid spreekt voor zich : een verhaal over 30 jaar meertalig onderwijs van Foyer. Acco publ.

During 30 years Foyer organized multilingual and bicultural education in the Dutch primary school system in Brussels, with very interesting results. The programmes were very successful. Former students, parents, teachers, the guidance team, school directors tell the story: how did it work? how were they involved? which results? why?

Leman, J. and L. Top, eds. (2002). Intercultureel en meertalig onderwijs, burgerschaps- en vredesopvoeding. Antwerp: Garant.

Leman, J. ed. (1999). Moedertaalonderwijs bij allochtonen. Leuven/Amersfoort: Acco.

Byram, M. and J. Leman, eds. (1991). Bicultural and Trilingual Education: the Foyer Model in Brussels. Clevedon-Philadelphia, Multilingual Matters, 158 p. 

Abstract: It is a collection of articles which describes an education programme for immigrant children in Brussels, Belgium. The “Foyer Programme” provides for the complex cultural and linguistic needs of children from another origin growing up in a bilingual city. The programme is unique and is described from within by those involved and from without by an international group of evaluators. 

Leman, J. ed. (1991). Intégrité, intégration: innovation pédagogique et pluralité culturelle. Brussels, De Boeck Université, 229 p. 

Résumé: Pour de nombreuses raisons, les grandes villes européennes connaissent des mouvements de population et une dynamique de diversification culturelle. Bruxelles est un exemple, avec une immigration importante, un rôle croissant au sein de la Communauté Européenne et une position centrale dans les relations intercommunautaires belges. La problématique scolaire qui en résulte inspire de nombreuses expériences pédagogiques. A cet égard, l’association Le Foyer a mis en oeuvre une initiative tournée vers les jeunes immigrés: une initiative exceptionnelle par sa durée, son ampleur, sa cohérence et sa connaissance théorique, mais aussi par le fait qu’elle a été soumise à l’évaluation critique de chercheurs, dont certains venus de l’étranger. Leurs observations alimenteront utilement à la réflexion de ceux qui s’interrogent sur les carences de la scolarisation en miilieu pluriculturel et sur les remèdes possibles.

Leman, J. (1989). Onderwijs en vorming voor laaggeschoolde jongeren. (Leman, J., Ed.). Leuven: Acco.

Leman, J., Sergeijssels, K., Geirnaerdt, W. (1988). Beter één certificaat in de hand... Voorzetten, 13. 's-Gravenhage: Nederlandse Taalunie.

Leman, J., Sergeijssels, K., Geirnaerdt, W. (1987). Lessen Nederlands voor anderstalige volwassen in Vlaanderen en Brussel. Voorzetten, 11. 's-Gravenhage: NederlandseTaalunie.

Leman, J., Gailly, A. (1982). Onderwijs, taal- en leermoeilijkheden in de immigratie. Leuven: Acco.

Roosens, E., Leman, J., Fernandez de Rota y Monter, J., del Pilar Irimia Fernandez, M., Stallaert, C., Byram, M., Danesi, M., Snoeck, K., Marchi, L. (1991). Intégrite, intégration: innovation pédagogique et pluralité culturelle. (Leman, Johan, Ed.). Brussels: De Boeck université.

Leman, J. (1991). Between bi- and intercultural education: projects in Dutch-language kindergartens and primary schools in Brussels. In: Jaspaert K., Kroon S. (Eds.), Ethnic minority languages and education.. Amsterdam/Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger, 123-134.

Leman, J., Jaspaert, K., Lemmens, G., Marchi, L., Danesi, M., Byram, M., Fernandez de Rota y Monter, J., del Pilar Irimia Fernandez, M., Snoeck, K., Smeekens, L. (1990). Bicultural and trilingual education: the Foyer model in Brussels. (Byram, Michael, Ed. Leman, Johan, Ed.). Clevedon - Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.

Leman, J., Spoelders, M., Smeekens, L. (1984). The Brussels Foyer bicultural education project: socio-cultural background and psycho-educational language assessment. In: Extra G., Vallen T. (Eds.), Language and ethnic minority children: current research on Dutch as a second language.. Dordrecht: Foris, 87-103.


Yilderim, E. and J. Leman (2012). Islam and education among Turkish Belgians, in Broeckaert; B. et al.  Perspectives on Islamic culture. Essays in honour of Emilio G. Platti. Cahiers du MIDEO. Peeters publ. edition:1 pages:315-338.
A study of 3 faith based Turkish Belgian migrant/citizen communities and the way they see and organize education for their youngsters.
Leman, J. (ed.) (2012). Meertaligheid spreekt voor zich : een verhaal over 30 jaar meertalig onderwijs van Foyer. Acco publ.
During 30 years Foyer organized multilingual and bicultural education in the Dutch primary school system in Brussels, with very interesting results. The programmes were very successful. Former students, parents, teachers, the guidance team, school directors tell the story: how did it work? how were they involved? which results? why?
Leman, J. (2010). "Plus est en vous": GOK en onderwijsbeleid, in Van Avermaet, P. et al. Goed gegokt? Reflecties op twintig jaar gelijke-onderwijskansenbeleid in Vlaanderen. Garant, edition:1st pages:125-135.
Niet alleen 'wat niet is, maar ook 'wat is' telt bij leerlingen. Het hoofdstuk behandelt de voorgeschiedenis van het huidige GOK beleid in Vlaanderen, de huidige toestand binnen het GOK, en een kritische evaluatie van het huidige inschrijvingsbeleid.
Leman, J., Trappers, A., Brandon, E. and X. Ruppol (2008). ‘Migration related socio-cultural changes and e-learning in a European globalising society’,  Studies in philosophy and education (Kluwer Academic Publ.) vol:27 pages:237-251. (IF most recent : 0.39).

OECD figures (1998-2002) reveal a sharply increasing flow of foreign workers into European countries. Ethnic diversification has become a generalized matter of fact. At the same time, rapidly developing technology and 'intellectual globalization' processes - the world wide web - have also become a reality. This complex cluster of changes has an impact on the perceptions of the self and the other. Multilayered belongings and paradoxical meanings enter into interethnic relations in sometimes most surprising and unpredictable ways from outside of the boundaries of local communities. But the developments also create new and very positive opportunities for education/schooling and social cohesion. The paper critically examines this changing context and also Europe's educational responses to the new challenges: the European Socrates programme, the initiatives in the field of intercultural citizenship education and the issue of combating deprivation.
Leman, J. (2002). 'Belgium: the triangle of peace-education, legislation, mediation’, in Salomon G. et al. Peace education: the concept, principles, and practices around the world. Erlbaum Publ.  pages:165-176

Leman, J., guest editor (2002) ‘Citizenship education, multilingual, intercultural and peace education : Possibilities for mutual fertilization’, Kolor, Journal on Moving Communities, Antwerp, vol. 1, nr 1.

Leman, J. (1999), guest editor ‘Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium and Cape Town, South Africa)’, International Journal of Educational Research, vol. 31, nr. 4, 257-353. 

Chapter 1: Leman, J., ‘Ethno-cultural intermingling, segregation, and education’, p. 263-266. 

Abstract: There is a tension between socio-ethnic stratification and social integration. 

Chapter 6: Leman, J., ‘Cultural hybridism and self-categorization: trilingually and biculturally scholarized adolescents in Brussels’, p. 317-326. 

Abstract: Adolescents who have attended “bicultural and trilingual” primary schools followed by Dutch-speaking secondary schools were questioned at the end of their school careers. The focus of the questions was on their emotional and cognitive skills with the various language and ethnic groups in Brussels with which they are currently interacting. At the same time, they were asked to evaluate their schooling and to draw up a future program for themselves and their children, indicating the role they would assign to education. Finally, the value and internal coherence these individuals ascribed to what outsiders would regard as cultural hybridism was examined. 

Chapter 8: Leman, J., ‘School as a structuring force in interethnic hybridism’, p. 341-353 

Abstract: Hybridism occurs on two levels. The first is the interethnic context in which the pupil is situated; the second is the personal life of the pupil himself or herself. A governmental authority first feels called upon to act within the interethnic societal context because this almost inevitably generates vertical stratification and leads to greater or lesser forms of ethnic segregation. This in turn generates anxiety, especially if it impacts too negatively on the advancement of pupils from lower rated schools to further educational opportunities or to the labor market, or if it helps maintain or promote an ethnic-racial society. The second level, hybridism versus ethnic belongingness in the personal lives of pupils, generally remains underappreciated as a theme. However, it is at this level that enormous opportunities remain unexploited.
Leman, J. (1997) ‘School as a socialising and corrective force in inter-ethnic urban relations’, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 18 (2): 125-134. (IF most recent : 0.6).

Leman, J. (1995). Recht op onderwijs: ook voor minderheden?. Tijdschrift voor onderwijsrecht en onderwijsbeleid, 1995(5-6), 336-337.

Leman, J. (1992). Hoe de scholenslag winnen? Beleidsperspectieven inzake onderwijs aan allochtonen in de Vlaamse Gemeenschap. Tijdschrift voor onderwijsrecht en onderwijsbeleid, (3), 5-18.

Leman, J. (1991). ‘The Education of Immigrant Children in Belgium’, Anthropology and Education Quarterly, vol. 22, nr. 2, 140-153. 

Abstract: This article examines the Flemish and French educational communities in Belgium, notes some characteristics of the largest minority groups in Belgium (the Italians, Moroccans, Turks, and Spaniards), and reviews some issues related to educational performance of minority students. The article concludes with a discussion of changes in Belgian educational policies for the children of minorities. 

Leman, J. (1991). The education of immigrant children in Belgium. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 22(2), 140-153 (IF most recent : 0.44).

Leman, J. (1988). Het bicultureel onderwijs in Vlaamse scholen te Brussel. Ons erfdeel, 31(1), 83-96.

Leman, J. (1985). The Foyer Project: a Brussels model of bicultural education in a trilingual situation. Studi emigrazione., 22(78), 254-266.

Leman, J., Tenaerts, D. (1987). De betekenis van het Italiaans-als-moedertaal in het voelen en denken van Italiaanse immigrantenkinderen in een bicultureel project. Cultuur en Migratie, (2), 77-92.

Leman, J. (1987). Taal-, cultuur- en didactiekproblemen in het onderwijs aan

Chapter in books

Leman, J. (1991). ‘Between Bi- and Intercultural Education: Projects in Dutch-Language Kindergartens and Primary Schools in Brussels’, in Jaspaert, K. and S. Kroon, eds. Ethnic Minority Languages and Education. Amsterdam/Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger, 123-134. 

Leman, J. and L. Marchi (1991). ‘Les familles marocaines et les institutions éducatives et scolaires belges: itinéraires et stratégies’, in Gaudier, J.P. and P. Hermans, eds., Des Belges marocains. Brussels, De Boeck Université, 137-170. 

Leman, J. (1990). ‘Bruselas y sus poblaciones mediterraneas: reflexiones etnograficas acerca de territorio e identidad’, in XXX, Actas Simposio de Otero Pedrayo. Santiago de Compostela, Consello da cultura galega, 47-60. 

Leman, J. (1989). ‘Hijos de emigrantes italianos en el proyecto bicultural de una escuela neerlandofona en Bruselas: tres lenguajes, dos culturas y sus interrelaciones’, Fernandez de Rota y Monter, J.A., ed. Lengua y cultura: approximacion desde una semantica antropologica. La Coruna, ed. do Castro, 199-215. 

Leman, J. (1985). ‘The Foyer Project: a Brussels model of bicultural education in a trilingual situation’, Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, vol. 22, nr. 78, 254-267. 

Abstract: The article studies a bicultural teaching experiment, organized by the social-pedagogical center, “Foyer”, in the multi-language city of Brussels (Belgium). This project deals with immigrant children and starts with their tri-lingual situation (mother tongue, French, and Flemish), which is often a handicap. The experiment aims to turn the handicap into an advantage by designing a well suited and structured teaching model. The project began in 1981. 

Spoelders, M., Leman, J. and L. Smeekens (1984). ‘The Brussels Foyer bicultural education project: socio-cultural background and psycho-educational language assessment’, in Extra, G. and T. Vallen, eds. Language and ethnic minority children: current research on Dutch as a second language. Dordrecht, Foris, 87-103.
 immigrantenkinderen. Cultuur en Migratie, (2), 7-25.